Sex Discrimination

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in education programs or activities operated by recipients of Federal financial assistance.

Discrimination on the basis of sex relates to a broad category of activities that prevent or limit an individual from participating in or benefiting from an education program or activity.  The following list gives a more in-depth, though not exhaustive, look at the types of behavior which are prohibited:

  • Sexual harassment
  • Gender-based discrimination/harassment (includes gender identity, transgender status, non-conformity with sex-stereotypes)
  • Sex-based discrimination/harassment (includes discrimination/harassment based on sex-stereotyping, often includes behavior which constitutes sexual orientation discrimination/harassment)
  • Sexual violence
  • Relationship violence


Examples of sexual harassment include, but are not limited to:

  • Requesting or pressuring an individual for sexual contact
  • Discussing sexual activities
  • Touching of intimate body parts
  • Commenting on an individuals' physical attributes
  • Displaying suggestive drawings, pictures, or written materials
  • Using indecent gestures
  • Unwanted sexual contact including sexual assault

Examples of sex and gender based discrimination in the treatment of students include, but are not limited to:

  • Hazing involving sexual simulation
  • Sexual harassment by a professor
  • Male who is bullied for being "too feminine"
  • Catcalls and whistles when a student walks across campus
  • Adverse treatment of pregnant students
  • Discouraging women from pursuing certain professions or degrees
  • Inadequate facilities for a particular sex
  • Belittling comments by a professor about men
  • A professor only hires women as TAs

Examples of sexual violence include, but are not limited to:

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Sexual battery
  • Sexual coercion

Examples of relationship violence include, but are not limited to:

  • Intimate partner violence
  • Domestic abuse
  • Stalking
  • Dating violence